India is the third largest producer of agricultural output in the World. Nearly two thirds

of India’s population still derives their livelihoods from agricultural sector

directly and indirectly. Thus, agriculture development is always a priority in the

development policy in India. Most of the agricultural policies in India during the pre-

1990s era were centred on production-oriented strategies. These policies were highly

relevant until mid-eighties-as increase of food production was a primary development

goal of the India’s policy to reduce the dependency on other countries for food

imports. The First to Fifth Five Years Plans (1951 to 1975) mainly focused on

irrigation expansion, introduction of so-called ‘green revolution’ technologies

especially modern crop varieties/hybrids, government’s policy support for both input

and output marketing, setting of big fertiliser plants for increasing domestic supplies

of chemical fertilisers, nationalisation of commercial banks in order to increase the

rural credit flow, setting up of Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices, and

setting up of Food Corporation of India, etc. mainly aimed at achieving rapid growth

in food grain production in India. As a result of all these efforts, India’s food

economy has been transformed from a ‘chronic deficit’ stage to the ‘self-reliance’

stage by the mid-eighties, and reached the record of food surplus stage by the end of

Inter-Conference Symposium of International Association of

Agricultural Economists (IAAE) on



The ‘Eldon’ mango is a mango cultivar which originated in the USA state of Florida. ‘Eldon’ eventually became a commercially adopted variety.

The original tree was grown from a seed on the property of Walter B. Eldon in Miami, Florida in 1939. Reportedly the seed had been a ‘Haden’ seed, and a 1995 analysis supported this; however a 2005 pedigree study did not support this, estimating that ‘Eldon’ was likely a seedling of ‘Cowasji Patel’ instead. The original tree first fruited in 1942. Propagation was begun around 1948 by Lawrence Zill and J.W. Chafer. While ‘Eldon’ did not become a popular nursery stock tree in Florida over the following decades, it did eventually gain commercial acceptance in Africa. ‘Eldon’ trees are planted in the collections of the USDA’s germplasm repository in Miami, and the University of Florida’s Tropical Research and Education Centre in Homestead, Florida.[5] ‘Eldon’ may have been a parent of the ‘Southern Blush’ mango.

The fruit is of oval shape and averages about a pound in weight; moreover, the fruit may have

variegated color upon maturity, and can be a mix of green, yellow, orange and red blush. The flesh is yellow and has a sweet flavour with a pleasant aroma. The fruit contains a mono embryonic seed.

The trees are moderately vigorous with a large canopy that contains light green leaves.



India is the major producer of mango among the countries in the world. Though the area under mango is increasing, the productivity is declining in India over the years. A study was undertaken using the secondary data drawn from both State and Central Government sources in respect of area, production and productivity and export of mango. India found to be the major producer and exporter of mango to the developing and the developed world. Tamil Nadu in India found to be the leader in fruit production followed by Maharashtra.

In respect of productivity of fruits, Himachal Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the front runners followed by Madhya Pradesh. When we compare the fruit production over the years, it is interesting to note that higher area under fruits have produced very meagre increase in fruit production due to low productivity.

Percentage reduction in fruit productivity in a decade of time is found to be 2.68 per cent and the mango productivity is 3.19 per cent. In respect of productivity of mango, 2012-13 had witnessed highest production of mango. Percentage increase in production of mango is accounted to be 36.22 per cent in a decade of time.

To confirm the decrease in productivity, a case farm in Theni District of Tamil Nadu was personally assessed for its production and productivity of mango revealed that the Case farm is able to generate 558 per cent higher productivity than the state average and 216 per cent higher productivity than the national average productivity. In this paper, efforts have also been taken to document the export status of mango to different countries, processing units in operation with Tamil Nadu and the Cold Storage facility available for keeping the farm grown produce especially the fruits and their capacity utilization are also addressed with respect to India and Tamil Nadu in particular.